The intercultural communication research theme concentrates on intercultural communication in tourism safety. The significance of intercultural communication is emphasized particularly in tourism and in safety and security issues. Customers from different countries and cultures may have very different ways of communicating. This research theme addresses how cultural background affects our manner of communicating and how we understand and observe instructions related to safety and security.

The Lapland’s Tourism Safety and Security System project has conducted research on intercultural communication in tourism safety, where the main target groups have been guides and tourism companies in Lapland.


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Lapland University Consortium publications:
Rantala, O. 2011. Utilizing forest in tourism: ethnographic study on nature guiding (in Finnish). Rovaniemi: Lapland University Press.

Lapland University Consortium theses:
Sergejeva, J. 2008. Safety culture in tourism adventure service companies in Lapland and the Murmansk region (in Finnish). Bachelor’s thesis. University of Lapland.

Other publications:
Hirvi, J. 2010. Assessing and developing safety culture in a company in the defense equipment industry (in Finnish). Tampere University of Technology, 104 p.

Rantala, O. - Valkonen, J. 2011. The Complexity of Safety in Wilderness Guiding in Finnish Lapland. Current issuess in Tourism.

Ruuska, P. - Valkonen, J. 2008. Northern safari guides as users of national categories (in Finnish).
Kulttuurintutkimus Vol. 25, 2008 (No 1), 3–16.

Valkonen, J. 2011. Skill in service work (in Finnish). Vastapaino: Tampere.

Valkonen, J. - Ruuska, P. 2012. Nationspeak as a tool in tourism work. European Journal of cultural studies vol. 15 no. 1, 105–120.

Other material:
Syrjälä, N. - Häikiö, S. - Kangasniemi, U. 2012.* Intercultural Communication and Customer Safety in Tourism. The 21st Nordic Symposium in Tourism and Hospitality Research Umeå, November 7–10, 2012. Working paper.

Safety pedagogics (in Finnish), Education Days 21.–22.11.2013

Official reports:
Hautamäki, A. 2009. Creative economy and culture at the core of innovation policy (in Finnish). Ministry of Education
publication 2009:30.

National and international research books and articles:
Malankin, M. 2012.
Russians as tourism customers (in Finnish). Publication series A no 71. Mikkeli University of Applied Sciences.

Robinson, M. - Boniface, P. 1998 (eds.) Tourism and Cultural conflicts. CABI Publishing. 314 p.

Buckley, R. 2010. Communications in Adventure Tour Products. Health and Safety in Rafting and Kayaking. Annals of Tourism Research Vol. 37, No. 2, 315–332. DOI: 10.1016/j.annals.2009.10.011.

Byram, M. 2011.
Teaching intercultural competence – the complementarity of training and education. Presentation at the conference Teaching Intercultural Communication in Finnish Higher Education. University of Turku, 11 November 2011.

Gore, K. 2007. Networking Cultural Knowledge. An interactive and experiential strategy to apply intercultural communication in business. Helsinki: WSOY Learning material.

Hall, S. 2003.Culture, place, identity (in Finnish).
In Erilaisuus (M. Lehtonen – Löytty, O. (eds.)). Tampere: Vastapaino.

Holliday, A. – Hyde, M. – Kullman, J. 2004.
Intercultural Communication. An Advanced Resource Book. London: Routledge.

Jandt, F. E. 2004. An Introduction to Intercultural Communication. Identities in a Global Community. Fourth Edition. Thousand Oaks (California): Sage Publications.

Keisala, K. 2011.
Postmodern definition of a culture in the education of intercultural communication. A presentation at the conference Teaching Intercultural Communication in Finnish Higher Education. University of Turku, 11 November 2011.

Kiełbasiewicz-Drozdowska, I. – Radko, S. 2006. The Role of Intercultural Communication in Tourism and Recreation. Studies in Physical Culture and Tourism Vol. 13, No. 2, 75–85.

Kroeber, AL. – Kluckhohn, C. 1952. Culture. A critical review of concepts and definitions. Papers of the Peabody Museum of American Archeology and Ethnology. New York: Harvard University Press.

Lustig, M. – Koester, J. 1993. Intercultural competence: Interpersonal communication across cultures. New York: Harper Collins College Publications.

Reisinger, Y. – Mavondo, F. 2006.
Cultural Differences in Travel Risk Perception. Journal of Travel and Tourism Marketing Vol. 20 (1), 13–31.

Reisinger, Y. – Turner, L. W. 2003. Cross-Cultural Behavior in Tourism. Concepts and Analysis. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann.

Reisinger, Y. 2009. International Tourism. Cultures and Behaviors. Butterworth-Heinemann / Elsevier.

Salo-Lee, L. 2006.
Low and high context communication processing. Introduction to Intercultural Communication. University of Jyväskylä.

Sipola, A. 2011.
Intercultural communication in experience tourism in the Inari area. Pro gradu thesis. University of Jyväskylä: Department of Communication.

Sizoo, S. – Iskat, W. – Plank, R. – Serrie, H. 2003. Cross-Cultural Service Encounters in the Hospitality Industry and the Effect of Intercultural Sensitivity on Employee Performance. International Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Administration Vol. 4(2) 2003, 61–77.

Vulpe, T. – Kealey, D. – Protheroe, D. – Macdonald, D. 2001.
A profile of the interculturally effective person. Centre for Intercultural Learning. Canadian Foreign Service Institute.

Additional information:
Ulla Kangasniemi, Multidimensional Tourism Institute,, tel. +358 40 710 6403
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