The underlying principle of the Snow and ice construction research theme in tourism safety is to ensure the safety of snow and ice structures and their users. Safety is emphasized in snow and ice construction in managing the use of the structures and in understanding deformation in snow and ice materials. The effect of changes in the weather on deformation is particularly emphasized. Snow and ice construction is a special area of expertise in northern Finland’s tourism construction, which has been realized throughout Lapland for over twenty years. (Ryynänen 2012.)

 Lainion Snowvillagen lumikappeli 2009.jpg

Figure 1. Snow chapel in Lainio’s SnowVillage, 2009.          Figure 2. Exterior of snow restaurants in Lainio’s SnowVillage, 2008.       © Kai Ryynänen                                                                     © Kai Ryynänen


Lapland University Consortium publications:
Riikonen, L. 2009. Snow construction consultation, final report (in Finnish). Rovaniemi
University of Applied Sciences. SNOW ICE & METHODS. Snow and ice construction research and guideline project. Rovaniemi University of Applied Sciences.

Ryynänen, K. 2011.
Snow and ice construction guide. Tips for authorities – instructions for builders (in Finnish). Publication C no 27. Rovaniemi University of Applied Sciences. Also see list of references!

Lapland University Consortium theses:
Peltokoski, O.-V. 2010. Measuring the compression strength of ice (in Finnish). Bachelor’s thesis. Rovaniemi University of Applied Sciences.

Other publications:
Kilpeläinen, M. - Mäkinen, S. 2003. Construction properties of ice (in Finnish). NorTech Oulu publication 2/2003. University of Oulu. Oulu.

Komu, H. - Kivelä-Pelkonen, L. 2011.
Snow and ice tourism in Finland and other countries (in Finnish). TEM report 10/2011.

Mäkinen, S. - Kilpeläinen, M. 2000. Snow formation properties on snow structures (in Finnish). University of Oulu. Civil Engineering Laboratory, publication 58. Oulu.

Official reports:
Consumer Office. 2008. Safety of snow and ice structures (in Finnish). Consumer Office.

Pitkänen, M. 2003. Building supervision’s perspective on snow construction—safety factors (in Finnish). Building supervision, City of Kemi.

Additional information:
Kai Ryynänen, Rovaniemi
University of Applied Sciences, kai.ryynanen@lapinamk.fi, tel. +358 40 526 1596
Ari Karjalainen, Rovaniemi
University of Applied Sciences, ari.karjalainen@lapinamk.fi, tel. +358 40 510 8427