Risk is the probability of an undesired incident times the consequences. In other words, risk is the possibility of an incident (which may also be expressed with statistical figures) which causes or is followed by personal injury or which results in environmental, cultural, or financial loss. In tourism, risk management takes place in the value chain of tourism. It takes into consideration the tourist’s home area, travels, activities at the destination, and return to the home area. Risk management is a central component of safety management. Risk management prevents dangerous factors that affect people, the environment, and production.

Lapland’s tourism safety and security network applies a systematic perspective to risk management where the stakeholders include tourism companies, organizations, authorities, municipalities, and educational institutions.


Photo: Water rescue drill in Posio, summer 2012. © Vesa Koivumaa

Lapland University Consortium publications:
Iivari, P. 2012.*
Tourism Safety and Security: Global changes, local impacts (in Finnish). Publication series D no 8. Rovaniemi University of Applied Sciences.

Iivari, P. 2012.*
Business crisis and its management. Crisis management as a part of safety and security management in a tourism company. Publication series C no 31. Rovaniemi University of Applied Sciences. 94 p.

Lapland University Consortium theses:

Mäki, J. 2012. Tourism company’s staff risk management (in Finnish). Pro Gradu thesis. Tourism research / Tourism business competence line, Faculty of Social Studies, University of Lapland.

Niemelä, E. 2012. Hotel fire safety management in Rovaniemi (in Finnish). Bachelor’s thesis. Hospitality Management Program, Rovaniemi University of Applied Sciences.

Lindgren, Jenni (2010). Tourism safety, safety planning, and its impact in Levi’s tourism center (in Finnish). Bachelor’s thesis. Tourism Program, Rovaniemi University of Applied Sciences.

Other publications:
Hanen, T. 2005. Safety management and the Frontier Guard: from investigation of individual accidents to management of strategic disturbances (in Finnish). Helsinki: National Defense University.

Official reports:
Ministry of Social Affairs and Health (2011). Risk management and safety planning: a guide for social service and health management and safety specialists (in Finnish). Helsinki: Ministry of Social Affairs and Health.

Lindfors, E. (ed.). 2012. Toward a safer school! Research and development challenges in school safety and safety education (in Finnish). OPTUKE network’s 1st research and development symposium in Hämeenlinna 8.–9.2. 2011. Tampere: University of Tampere.

National Outdoors Leadership School: Wilderness Risk Management Conference (State College, PA: October 28–30, 2005).

National and international research books and articles:
Suominen, A. 2003. Risk management (in Finnish). Helsinki: WSOY.

Additional information:
Pekka Iivari, Multidimensional Tourism Institute,
pekka.iivari@lapinamk.fi, tel. +358 400 425 784
Vesa Koivumaa, Multidimensional Tourism Institute,
vesa.koivumaa@lapinamk.fi, tel. +358 40 586 6826
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