Grey economy refers to business operation or entrepreneurship which otherwise is legal, but which does not pay legal fees or taxes, such as withholding tax, social security, or pension payments. In the European Union, grey economy also includes illegal immigration and illegal trade, such as the drug trade.

Grey economy typically exists in labor-intensive sectors like construction, lodging and catering, and transport. The grey economy theme deals with investigating and preventing crime. The police departments of Lapland and Peräpohjola belong to Lapland’s tourism safety and security network.

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Photo: © Pekka Iivari

Lapland University Consortium publications:
Iivari, P. 2011.* Business Crisis and its Management. Crisis management as a part of safety and security management in a tourism company. Publication series C no 31. Rovaniemi University of Applied Sciences.

Other publications:
Ahonen, J. – Koskinen, T. – Romero, T. 2009. Guide for compiling a restaurant business plan (in Finnish). Helsinki: Restamark.

Hospitality services MaRa ry. 2010.
Responsible entrepreneurship in the hospitaility management sector (in Finnish).
Hospitality services MaRa ry.
Grey economy (in Finnish).

Samociuk, M. - Iyer, N. - Lehtosuo, K. 2004. Preventing malpractice. A practical guide (in Finnish). Yrityskirjat. Jyväskylä: Gummerus Kirjapaino Oy. 143 p.

Official reports:
Situation report on crime which targets and exploits companies (in Finnish). 2012. Ministry of the Interior report 2012 published by the Central Criminal Police 11.10.2012.

Ministry of the Interior. 2006.
Businesses’ and authorities’ joint strategy for eliminating crimes and malpractice against companies (in Finnish). Ministry of the Interior publication 15/2006.

Ministry of the Interior. 2008. Internal security.
A secure life for everyone – Internal security program (in Finnish). Ministry of the Interior publication 16/2008.

Ministry of the Interior. 2010. Internal security.
Situation report for enhancement of industry’s crisis readiness and preparedness for abnormal situations (in Finnish). Ministry of the Interior publication 16/2010.

Ministry of the Interior. 2012. Internal security.
Safe business opetation – national strategy for improving business safety and security (in Finnish). Ministry of the Interior publication 30/2012.

National and international research books and articles:
Europol Organised Crime Threat Assessment (OCTA) 2011.

Additional information:
Pekka Iivari,
Multidimensional Tourism Institute,, tel. +358 400 425 784
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