Actors in this focal area are conducting inventories and comparative research on the Arctic agendas and strategies of governments and non-governmental organizations. On one hand they are continuing to create a foundation for a new global line of research and an education program based on a significant change in geopolitics and security in the Arctic region (the end of the Cold War), and on the other hand they are laying the groundwork for the principles of stability, peace, and sustainable development.                                                                                                     Globaalimuutokset.jpg

In addition they are outlining and (re)defining the stability and non-violence of the Arctic region as universal models in the increasingly globalized world / world economy and world politics. Research is being employed to challenge traditional policy emphasizing government sovereignty and national interests and return to discourse on the region’s international cooperation and the region’s construction / regionalization, which takes into account local and regional non-governmental organizations.

There is often a direct connection between Lapland’s tourism safety and global changes. Safety- and security-related phenomena are connected to air traffic, terrorism, wars, and climate change, to name a few.


Image designed by Tiina Kaksonen, Lapland University Consortium (LUC)




                                                                     
                                                                  

Lapland University Consortium publications:
Heininen, L. 2010. Globalization and Security in the Circumpolar North. In: Globalization and the Circumpolar North. Lassi Heininen and Chris Southcott (eds.). University of Alaska Press, Fairbanks 2010. pp 221–263.

Iivari, P. 2012.*
Tourism safety and security: global changes, local impacts (in Finnish). Publication series D no 8. Rovaniemi University of Applied Sciences. Also see the list of references!

Tennberg, M. (ed.) 2012. Governing the uncertain: adaptation and climate in Russia and Finland. Berlin: Springer.

Lapland University Consortium theses:
Aalto, N. 2011. DNA tests as a guarantee of security: immigrants’ security in French immigrant discourses (in Finnish). Pro gradu thesis. Rovaniemi: University of Lapland.

Alt, S. 2009. The indeterminacy of the human of biopower: competing problematics of human security. Pro gradu thesis. Rovaniemi: University of Lapland.

Armstrong, M.T. 2008. Inuvialuit food security: country foods, challenges, and the role of human security. Pro gradu thesis. Rovaniemi: University of Lapland.

Kantola, M. 2008. A story about energy security: narrator Vladimir Putin (in Finnish). Pro gradu thesis. Rovaniemi: University of Lapland.

Karjalainen, Tiia (2007). Elderly person’s safety lamp (in Finnish). Pro gradu thesis. Rovaniemi: University of Lapland.

Kukkonen, M. 2007. The Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, last piece of untouched American wilderness or the next Prudhoe Bay? A study on the role of competing coalitions, contested values, and media in an American environmental dispute over Alaskan wilderness. Pro gradu thesis. Rovaniemi: University of Lapland.

Kyyrönen, V. 2012. Beyond the energy policies: conceptualizing the nexus between energy security and international relations security studies. Pro gradu thesis. Rovaniemi: University of Lapland.

Leinonen, S. 2009. Human safety and security as a biopolitical management technology in the context of European safety, security, and defense policy (in Finnish). Pro gradu thesis. Rovaniemi: University of Lapland.

Ojanen, J. 2005. Finland’s international security policy in the 1990s (in Finnish). Pro gradu thesis. Rovaniemi: University of Lapland.

Rajahalme, M. 2005. Going against the wind: a life cycle study of feelings of insecurity, methods of coping, and the significance of experiences for the present among people born in 1901–1024 (in Finnish). Pro gradu thesis. Rovaniemi: University of Lapland.

Rajaniemi, L. 2007. The government as a provider of security: postmortem on Asia’s national catastrophe in Helsingin Sanomat (in Finnish). Pro gradu thesis. Rovaniemi: University of Lapland.

Saarikoski, E. 2007. Collective security in international law and the EU (in Finnish). Pro gradu thesis. Rovaniemi: University of Lapland.

Sipola, V.-M. 2003. European Union’s crisis management as foreign- and security-policy activity (in Finnish). Rovaniemi: University of Lapland. Pro gradu thesis.

Tapanila, A. 2001. OSCE as a peacekeeper: A study on the peacekeeping methods of the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe and its position as a regional security organization (in Finnish). Rovaniemi: University of Lapland. Pro gradu thesis.

Virta, M. 2006. Legal impact of ISPS regulations on a passenger ship (in Finnish). Pro gradu thesis. Rovaniemi: University of Lapland.

Välitalo, R. 2003. Terrorism as a safety and security topic: discourse on terrorism in letters to the editor in Helsingin Sanomat in the autumn of 2001 (in Finnish). Pro gradu thesis. Rovaniemi: University of Lapland.

More theses (in addition to this short list) can found via the
University of Lapland’s Faculty of Social Sciences.

Other publications:
Soikkeli, U. 2012.
Impact of the Arab spring on Finnish package tours in Egypt (in Finnish). Thesis: Saimaa University of Applied Sciences.

Official reports:
Horttanainen, E. - Salo, R. 2007.
Municipalities and globalization (in Finnish). Kuntaliitto: Helsinki. Digital version on the internet.

National and international research books and articles:


Bird, D. K., Gisladottir, G. ja Dominey-Howes, D. (2009). Volcanic Risk and Tourism in Southern Iceland: Implications for Hazard, Risk and Emergency Response Education and Training. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 189 (2010), 33–48.

Booth, K. 2007. Theory of world security. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Butler, R. - Suntikul, W. (ed.) 2010. Tourism and Political Change. Oxford: Goodfellow Publishers Ltd.

Buzan, B. - de Vilde, J. - Waever, O. 1998. Security: A New Framework for Analysis. Lynne Rienner Publishers.

Dalby, S. 2002. Environmental Security. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

Hakovirta, H. 2003. Problem-centered Globalism: The new direction in research on international relations (in Finnish). University of Turku: Kirja-Aurora.

Heininen, L. "Globalization and Security in the Circumpolar North." In: Globalization and the Circumpolar North. Lassi Heininen and Chris Southcott (eds.). University of Alaska Press, Fairbanks 2010. pp 221–263.

Heiskanen, M. 2013.
Border emperor’s new concepts/clothes. Conceptual analysis of border security (in Finnish). Rovaniemi: Acta Universitatis Lapponiensis 257. University of Lapland publishing.

Kegley, C.W. - Wittkopf, E.R. 2006. World politics: trend and transformation.10th ed. Southbank, Victoria: Thomson Learning Australia.

Kerr, P. 2010. ‘Human Security.’ In: Contemporary Security Studies, 2nd edition (A. Collins (ed.)). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Krause, K. - Williams, M.C. 1997. Critical Security Studies: Concepts and Cases. London and New York: Routledge.

Laitinen, K. 1999. Reality and problematics of security: interpretations of new securities after the Cold War (in Finnish). Tampere: University of Tampere.

Rosenau, J.N. 1990. Turbulence in world politics: a theory of change and continuity. Princeton (NJ): Princeton University Press.

Stonehouse, B. - Snyder, J. M. 2010. Polar tourism: an environmental perspective. Bristol, England: Channel View Publications.

Tennberg, M. (ed.) (2012) Governing the uncertain: Adaptation and climate in Russia and Finland. Berlin: Springer.

Vuoristo, K.-V. 1998. World of tourism. Geography of international tourism (in Finnish). Helsinki: WSOY.

Väyrynen, R. 1998. Globalization: threat or opportunity? (in Finnish) Jyväskylä: Atena.

More information on research sources can be found on the homepages of the sector’s research institutions.

National and international networks and projects:
Barents region’s international cooperation portal
Common Operation Picture Exploitation (COPE), VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland
Cooperation Project (CoopP)
FORESEC, Martti Ahtisaari Centre
Association for research on international relations (Finnish)
Northern research Forum NRF
Regional Tourist Safety And Security Network
SAFETUR - Practice-based training tool for safety and security in rural tourism
Finland’s committee for promotion of European security (Finnish)

Foreign policy institute’s Global Security research program (Finnish)

Additional information:
Pekka Iivari, Multidimensional Tourism Institute, pekka.iivari@lapinamk.fi, tel. +358 400 425 784