The main emphasis of an organization’s crisis management is on preventing undesired incidents. Crisis management should also include prevention and management of a possible crisis following an incident. A crisis occurs when an abnormal situation endangers the physical and immaterial existence of an organization. Crises are unavoidable also in the tourism sector, which is susceptible to various abnormal situations. The impacts of crises are easily reflected around the world.

Lapland’s tourism safety and security network has produced studies and educational material on methods, contents, and main actors in crisis management for companies. The focus of research and development is on company-specific crisis management.

Tourism Crisis Management Institute in Florida is an international partner of the Multidimensional Tourism Institute in thematic collaboration on crisis management.  

Photo: Rescue drill in Kemijärvi, summer 2012. © Aleksi Latvala

Lapland University Consortium publications:
Iivari, P. 2012.*
Business crisis and its management. Crisis management as a part of safety and security management in a tourism company. Publication series C no 31. Rovaniemi University of Applied Sciences. 94 p.

Iivari, P. 2012.* Tourism Safety and Security: Global changes, local impacts (in Finnish). Publication series D no 8. Rovaniemi University of Applied Sciences. Also see the list of references!

Lapland University Consortium theses:
Lahtimaa, M. 2012.
Journalists encounter a crisis. Yle Tampere’s journalists’ crisis reporting from the standpoint of crisis communication guidelines. School of Culture thesis Multimedia journalism, Medianomi (AMK) (in Finnish). Kemi-Tornio University of Applied Sciences.

Other publications:
Karosto, P. - Karppinen, S. 2011. Finnish coping handbook: plan, foresee, prepare (in Finnish). Jyväskylä: Docendo.

Källman, S. - Sepp, H. 2004. Coping with nature: outdoorsman’s safety guide (in Finnish). Hämeenlinna: Karisto.

Silvast, A. 2006. From blackout to criticism: experiences and incidences of power supply disturbances (in Finnish). Pro-gradu thesis. Helsinki: University of Helsinki.

National and international research books and articles:
Botterill, D. - Jones, T. 2010. Tourism and Crime: Key Themes. Oxford: Goodfellow Publishers.

Chawla, R. 2008. Tourism marketing and crisis management. New Delhi, India: Rajat Publications.

Glaessner, D. 2003. Crisis Management in Tourism Industry. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann.

Leonhardt, J. - Vogt, J. 2006. Critical incident stress management in aviation. Aldershot, Hampshire, England; Burlington, VT: Ashgate.

Pforr, C. - Hosie, P. 2010. Crisis Management in the Tourism Industry: Beating the Odds? Farnham: Ashgate.

Pennington-Gray, L. International Tourists’ Perceptions of Safety & Security

Ritchie, B. 2009. Crisis and disaster management for tourism. Bristol: Channel View.

Scott, N. - Laws, E. - Prideaux, B. 2010. Safety and security in tourism: recovery marketing after crises. London: Routledge.

National and international networks and projects:
CRISMA, VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland
Developing a Crisis Communication Scorecard (CrisComScore), University of Jyväskylä
Public Empowerment Policies for Crisis Management (PEP), University of Jyväskylä
Martti Ahtisaari’s
crisis management office

Additional information:
Pekka Iivari,
Multidimensional Tourism Institute,, tel. +358 400 425 784

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